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Collection Studio 4.72

[ release date: March 31, 2016 ]


library article Book

library article Book Care Tips

library article Book classification systems

library article Book collecting

library article Collections of books

library article Conservation issues

library article Glossary of Book Terms

library article History of books

library article Keeping track of books

library article Structure of books

library article Types of books

Glossary of Book Terms

Advanced Reading CopyA copy for reviewers and/or booksellers, usually bound in paperwraps and usually with either the finished cover art or possibly trial cover art. Generally, this copy is at it will appear in the stores and differs from the Uncorrected Proof.
All Edges GiltThe top, fore-edge and foot of the book are coloured in gold.
Antiquarian BooksA loose term implying collectible books rather than used books. Refers to old, rare, and out-of-print books.
ApocryphalA work whose authenticity or authorship is in doubt.
AppendixAdditional or supplementary material generally found at the end of a book.
As IssuedA term indicating a given book is in the same condition as when originally published.
Association CopyA book which belonged to or was annotated by the author, someone close to the author, a famous or noteworthy person, or someone especially associated with the content of the work. Should have documentary evidence of its association, such as the author's bookplate.
As UsualA favorite term to describe defects which probably occur only on copies of the book the particular dealer handles, such as "lacks endpapers, as usual".
Atlas FolioA book that is up to 25" tall
Autographed LetterA handwritten letter.
Autographed Letter, SignedA handwritten letter signed by the writer.
Autographed Manuscript, SignedA manuscript all in the author's hand.
BackstripThe covering of the book's spine.
Bastard TitleSee Front Matter and Half-title.
BiblioFrom the Greek; signifying or pertaining to books.
BiblioclastA destroyer of books.
BibliognostHaving a deep knowledge of books.
BibliokleptA stealer of books.
BibliomaniacA bibliophile in whom the love of books has become an obsession; many bookdealers and certain collectors.
BibliophileA lover of books.
BibliophobiaA fear of books.
BibliopoleThe people behind the booths at the book fairs.
BindingThe cover of the book.
Binding CopyA book which needs to be rebound and is worth rebinding.
Blind-stampingAn impressed mark, decoration, or lettering, not coloured or gilded, usually appearing on the binding. One way that the Book Clubs have marked their editions when they are otherwise identical to trade editions is to use a small square, round, or sometimes leaf-shaped blind stamp in the bottom right corner of the rear board.
Block BooksBooks made around the mid 1400's in Germany and the Netherlands in which pictures and explanatory text were printed from woodblocks.
BlurbA comment from a review (often by another author praising the particular book) printed on the dustwrapper or covers of a proof copy, or on a wrap-around band.
BoardsThe stiff binding material for most modern books.
Book BlockThe entire book sewn together before it is bound.
Book Club EditionA book usually printed especially for a book club such as "The Book of the Month Club" or "The Literary Guild." These copies will usually have the words "Book Club Edition" printed on the bottom right corner of the front flap of the dustwrapper. Occasionally, if the book club does not wish to do a separate edition they will have a publisher blind stamp the rear board and print a supply of dustwrappers without a price on the front flap and now without the bar code data on the rear panel. Book Clubs are not solely an American phenomenon as there have been numerous British Book Clubs over the years.
Book LabelA label indicating the ownership of a book. Generally smaller than a Bookplate.
Book Sizes4to - A book that is up to 12" tall.
8vo - A book that is up to 9 ѕ" tall.
12mo - A book that is up to 7 ѕ" tall.
16mo - A book that is up to 6 ѕ" tall.
24mo - A book that is up to 5 ѕ" tall.
32mo - A book that is up to 5" tall.
48mo - A book that is up to 4" tall.
64mo - A book that is up to 3" tall.
BookplateA pasted-in sign of ownership. Modern bookplates are pressure sensitive (peel-and-stick) as opposed to the older bookplates which were made with water-activated adhesive (lick-and-stick). Some bookplates from the last century were quite elaborate with engravings.
BoundA book with a cover of any type, or a periodical that has a cover other than its published wraps.
BowedA condition of the covers or boards of a hard cover book. Bowed covers may turn inward toward the leaves or outward away from the leaves. The condition generally results from a rapid change in the level of moisture in the air and is caused by different rates of expansion or contraction of the paste-down and the outer material covering the board. Breaker - A person who breaks up books to sell the plates individually, or the book itself when the covers are so bad that it either has to be rebound or broken up.
BroadsideA single sheet of paper, usually printed on one side only.
BuckramA heavy linen cloth used in book binding. It is often starched or coated with some protective material.
CancelA tipped-in (i.e., pasted in) page to replace a page removed after a book has been bound.
Case-BoundThe book is hardbound as opposed to a paperback.
ChapbookA cheaply printed book of the kind sold by street vendors in the 18th and 19th centuries.
ChippedUsed to describe where small pieces are missing or where fraying has occurred on a dust jacket or the edge of a paperback.
ClothA cloth-bound book. The covering can be linen, buckram or another textile.
CockedAlso shelf-cocked. A condition resulting from storing a book on a shelf so that it leans and rests against its neighbour or the side of a bookcase. Gravity deforms the book binding. Cocked also refers to a book in which the spine no longer remains at right angles to the covers.
CodexAn ancient volume of manuscript.
CollationTechnically, the examination and notation of the physical makeup of a book. By checking for the presence of every leaf or page originally in the volume when issued, a book may be collated as complete.
ColophonAn identifying inscription or emblem from the printer or publisher appearing at the end of a book. Also the emblem at the bottom of the spine on both the book and dust-wrapper as well as a logo on the title or copyright page.
Comb BindingA book binding similar to a spiral binding but using a round tubular plastic piece with many teeth which fit through small rectangular holes punched into the binding edge of the book. The plastic piece, if laid flat, would resemble a comb.
Conjugate LeafThe unsevered second half of a printed page.
ContemporaryRefers to bindings and hand-colored plates (generally of the period when the book was published) and author inscription (dated the year of publication).
CornersThe right angles on the unbound edges of the front and back covers of a hardcover book.
CoversThe binding of the book, most particularly the front and back panels of the book.
Covers bound-inThe original cloth covers, usually including the spine, bound into the book when a new binding is made. Normally they are mounted as pages at the end of the book. Also refers to the covers of books originally issued in boards or paperwraps, but in these cases the covers are usually bound in their proper positions.
CutMany modern books are smooth-trimmed after binding so that all edges are even, or flush. This is described as having been "cut".
DampstainedA light stain on the cover or on the leaves of a book caused by moisture such as a piece of food or perspiration. Generally not as severe as waterstains.
DarkeningWhen book covers are exposed to light, the colour darkens or becomes more intense. See also Fading.
Deckle EdgesAnother term for uncut or untrimmed edges.
Decorative Stamped BindingA highly detailed impression stamped into the cover and/or spine of a book.
Dedication CopyThe copy of the book inscribed by the author to the person to whom the book is dedicated.
Definitive EditionThe most authoritative version of a work.
DentsDamage to the edges of the cover of hardcover books.
DeviceA printer's ornament. Also an insignia that is the publisher's identifying mark. Now interchangeable with Colophon.
Disbound This term refers to a book or pamphlet, once bound, from which the binding has been removed.
Dog-EaredBook pages which have been folded over in the corners. Some people do this to mark their place in a book.
Dos-a-dosTwo separate books bound together so that each cover represents the cover for a different title. The Ace paperbacks or many science fiction books were issued this way.
Double Elephant FolioA book that is up to 50" tall
DummyA mock-up of a book used by salesmen in the late 19th and early 20th century to show prospective buyers what the book would look like. It usually had a title page, 10 or 20 pages of text, and then blank pages to fill out the rest of the binding.
DuoDecimo (12mo)A book approximately seven to eight inches tall.
Dust JacketA term synonymous with Dust Wrapper, indicating the usually decorative paper wrapper placed around a book to protect the binding.
DustwrapperSee Dust Jacket.
EdgesThe outer surfaces of the leaves of a book.
EdgewornWear along the edges of hardback book covers.
EditedPrepared for publication.
EditionAll the copies of a book printed from the same plates or typesetting.
EditorA person who gathers material for a book, oversees text written by others, and/or makes the text more readable.
Elephant FolioA book that is up to 23" tall
End PapersThe sheets of paper pasted onto the inner covers, joining the book block to the covers. One side of the sheet is pasted to the inside cover, the other is left free.
EphemeraFrom the Greek work ephemeron, meaning something that disappears quickly. Examples are: manifestos, broadsides, programs, menus, tickets, playbills, etc.
ErrataMistakes or errors. Generally encountered in the term "errata slip," a small sheet of paper laid into a book by a publisher who has discovered errors prior to publication.
ExampleA particular copy of an edition.
Ex-LibraryA term used to indicate a book was once in a library. They are usually identified with one or more markings of the library such as stampings, card pockets, cataloging numbers, etc. Frequently they are marked as "discarded" or "withdrawn" when sold by a library.
Ex-LibrisA bookplate printed with the owner's name or initials. Latin for "From the library of..."
Extra IllustratedA copy of a book into which additional illustrations have been bound.
FadingThe colour of some book covers fades or becomes less intense when exposed to light. See also Darkening.
First and Second Printing before PublicationThis indicates the publisher was successful in promoting the book and had more orders before the actual publication date than the first printing quantity would cover, therefore a second printing was ordered. Not a first edition.
First EditionGenerally used by book dealers and collectors to mean the first appearance of a work in book or pamphlet form, in its first printing.
First Separate EditionThe first appearance as a complete book or pamphlet of a work that has previously appeared as part of another book.
First ThusMeans not a first edition, but something is new. It may be revised, have a new introduction by the author or someone else, be the first publication in paperback form, or first by another publisher.
First Trade EditionThe edition produced for general commercial sale, as distinguished from a limited edition.
FlyleafA blank leaf, sometimes more than one, following the front free endpaper, or at the end of a book where there is not sufficient text to fill out the last few pages.
Fly titleSee Half-title.
FolioHas several meanings:
1. a leaf numbered on the front;
2. the numeral itself; and
3. a folio-sized book (A book that is up to 15" tall).
See Book Sizes.
Fore EdgeThe trimmed edge of the leaves of a book; the edge of the page opposite the spine, bound or back edge of the book.
Fore-Edge paintingThe front page edges of the book are bent back to expose a greater area and a watercolor painting is applied to this surface. After completion the book is closed and the painting cannot be seen. The opposite is also true. The painting is done on the edge of the pages so it can be seen when the book is closed but is not visible when the book was open.
Foxed, FoxingBrown spotting of the paper caused by a chemical reaction, generally found in 19th century books, particularly in steel engravings of the period.
Free EndpaperSee End Papers.
Frontis, FrontispieceAn illustration at the beginning of a book, usually facing the title page.
Front MatterThe pages preceding the text of a book, in the following order:
bastard title or fly title;
title page;
copyright page;
preface or forward;
table of contents;
list of illustrations;
Full BindingA binding in which the spines and boards are uniformly covered with the same material.
GalleysSometimes called "galley proofs" or "loose galleys" to distinguish them from bound galleys. Long sheets of paper bearing the first trial impression of the type.
GatheringA group of sheets folded together for sewing or gluing into the binding.
GaufferedAn 'engraved' design on the edges of a book.
Gilt EdgesThe page edges have been trimmed smooth and gilt, or gold, has been applied. The abbreviation ge means gilt edges; aeg means all edges gilt; gt means gilt top; teg means top edge gilt.
GlassineA transparent paper dustwrapper.
GutterThe inner margin of a leaf near the spine of a book. See Tail.
Half BindingA book in which the spine and corners are bound in a different material (frequently leather) than the rest of the covers.
Half ClothPaper-covered boards with the spine bound in cloth.
Half LeatherA term indicating that the spine and the corners of a book are bound in leather, while the rest of the binding may be cloth or paper. Also see Quarter Leather.
Half-TitleThe page carrying nothing but the title of the book, usually preceding the title page.
HeadThe upper margin of a leaf, cover or endpaper. Also referred to as the top.
HeadbandA decorative cloth band, sometimes colored or multi-colored, appearing inside the backstrip at the top (and sometimes bottom) of the spine of a book.
HeadpieceA decorative type ornament found at the start of a chapter or division of a book.
HighlightingThe use of transparent and brightly coloured markers to draw attention to particular text. Frequently done by students. See also Underlining and Marginalia.
HingeThe joint (either outer or inner) of the binding of a book - the part that bends when the book is opened.
HolographA term indicating the handwriting of the author.
Hors Texte, versos blank"Hors texte" is French for "outside of the text," and the term usually refers to plates, without printing on the reverse sides. The plates may be tipped in to paper of a different stock from that of the text.
HypermodernCollected first editions published within last ten years or so. Most were published so recently that there is no track record on author or book.
IllumReferring to polychrome illustrations. It usually means an illuminated manuscript.
IlluminationDecoration applied by hand in gold, silver or coloured paint.
IllustratedDecorated with pictures or other graphical material to portray or clarify the text.
IllustrationA design, picture, plate, plan, diagram, chart, or map printed within the text.
ImpressionA much misused term, but one that, when accurately employed, means the number of copies printed during any given press run.
ImprintA term that can refer either to the place of publication or to the publisher.
IncunabulaBooks, pamphlets, calendars, and indulgences printed before 1501.
IndexAn alphabetical listing of names or topics mentioned in the book, with their page numbers. For serials and journals, the index is usually published after the volume is completed and is usually found in the last issue.
India PaperAn extremely thin, yet relatively opaque paper, used to help reduce the bulk of what would otherwise be a book of unwieldy size.
InscribedUsually indicates a book signed by the author, either with an inscription to a specific person or bearing some brief notation along with his signature.
IntegralA leaf or page is said to be integral when it is one that was sewn and bound into a book during its manufacture.
InterleavedWhen blank leaves alternate with the printed leaves a book is said to be interleaved.
IssueSynonymous with State, referring to the priority of copies within the first edition.
JacketThe printed or unprinted cover, usually paper, placed around the bound book. Sometimes called Dust Jacket (dj), Dust Wrapper (dw), dust cover or book jacket.
Japan VellumA smooth, glossy paper, made in imitation of vellum, generally a light tan color.
JointThe exterior junction of the covers and spine of a book.
JuvenilesBooks originally or primarily written to be read by (or to) children.
JuveniliaWork written when an author was extremely young, often as a child.
Laid InA letter or other sheet(s) inserted but not glued into a book.
Laid PaperA handmade paper showing parallel lines of the papermaking frame, visible when held up to the light.
Large PrintA book that is made with large type for the visually impaired.
LeafA single sheet in a book; each leaf contains two printed pages, one on each side.
LedgitA label or memo slip projecting from a book's pages.
Library BindingReinforced bindings used by many public libraries.
Limited EditionAny book whose publication is deliberately restricted to a comparatively small number of copies, usually numbered and often signed by the author and/or illustrator.
LimpAn adjective describing a flexible binding in suede or imitation leather such as that used on the early titles of the Modern Library.
LooseThe binding of a new book is very tight; that is, the book will not open easily and generally does not want to remain open to any given page. As the book is used, the binding becomes looser until a well-used book may lay flat and remain open to any page in the book.
Made-up CopyA copy of a book whose parts have been assembled from one or more defective copies.
MarbledPaper decorated with an imitation marble pattern.
MarginaliaNotes written in the margins of a page around the text. Frequently used by students and others when studying a text. See also Highlighting and Underlining.
Mass-Market PaperbackThe most common paperback book, about four inches wide and seven inches high. Seen most often as mystery, science fiction and romance books. See also Trade Paperback.
Mint CopyAn absolutely perfect copy; as perfect as the day it was issued.
MisboundPages or signatures sewn together in an improper order.
Modern FirstsAll books published in this century.
MonographA work, generally short, dealing with a single subject and usually issued in pamphlet form.
MoroccoA type of leather made from goatskins, especially suitable for book bindings because of its durability and beauty.
ObverseThe right-hand page of a book, more commonly called the Recto.
Octavo (8vo)A book of about five inches wide and eight inches tall to about six by nine inches. Octavo is the most common size for current hardcover books. To make octavo books, each sheet of paper is folded to make eight leaves (16 pages).
OffprintA separate printing of a section of a larger publication; i.e., a periodical.
OffsetThe transfer of ink from one page to another, either as a printed page or an engraving.
Out-of-PrintA book no longer being printed.
Out-of-SeriesRefers to overruns or extra copies of limited editions.
Owner's BookplateSee Bookplate.
PageOne side of a leaf. The front side of a leaf is called the recto or obverse and the back side of the leaf is called the verso or the reverse.
PamphletA small separate work issued in paperwraps.
PaperbackBooks in paperwraps published since the 1930's, although it can describe any book with a paper cover.
Paperback GradingA letter grade system is sometimes used for describing the condition of a paperback:
"A" grade. Basically an unread book. No book store stamps on the edges, inside the front cover, etc. The book is as close to perfect as possible. These are typically very difficult to find for older books written in the 1980s and near impossible forthose in the 1970s and earlier.
"B" grade. Given to a book that is slightly creased in the spine. Might have name, initials, light stamp in the book.
"C" grade. This means that there are creases in the spine and maybe on the tips of the cover. Basically, it is a reader's copy only.
Paper BoardsStiff cardboard covered in paper.
PartsThe practice of publishing novels in separate monthly installments in magazine format.
Paste-DownThe portion of the end-paper pasted to the inner cover of a book.
Perfect bindingUsed in paperback books, trade paperbacks and magazines that have too many pages to be stapled. The page edges are glued together, then placed in the covers. This is a less expensive process than traditional book binding and stapling.
PictorialDescribes a book with a picture on the cover.
Pirated EditionAny edition of a work issued without permission of the author and without payment of royalties to the author or copyright holder.
PlatesWhole-page illustrations printed separately from the text. Illustrations printed in the text pages are called cuts.
PointsDistinguishing characteristics, usually errors, that occur within a first edition and indicate the priority of copies.
PrefaceAuthor's introductory statement.
Presentation CopyA copy of a book actually given by the author to someone of his acquaintance, usually with an inscription of some sort testifying to this.
Price ClippedThe price has been clipped from the corner of the dust jacket.
Printed CoverUsed to describe a dust wrapper or paper cover that is only lettered.
PrintingAnother word for Impression.
Private PressA small press, often operated by one person, usually devoted to the production of small quantities of finely printed books.
Privately PrintedThis term refers to a book or pamphlet whose printing was paid for by an individual or a group, and which is meant for private circulation, not public sale.
ProofsPrecede the published book. The normal course of events would be galley proof, uncorrected bound proof and advance reading copy bound in paperwraps.
ProspectusA publisher's announcement of a forthcoming book, set, or periodical, with information about the price, contributors or authors, date of publication, and binding.
ProvenanceThe history of ownership or possession of a given book.
Publication DateThe date a book is formally placed on sale.
Quarter BindingA book whose spine is covered in a different and generally fancier material than the covers.
Quarter LeatherA book with a leather spine. Also see Half Leather.
Quarto (4to)A book between octavo and folio in size; approximately 11 to 13 inches tall. To make a quarto, a sheet of paper is folded twice, forming four leaves (eight pages).
Raised BandThe raised areas on the spine concealing a cord which is attached to the covers. In earlier leather books cords were really used. In some modern books the raised bands are purely decorative and conceal no underlying cord.
Rare- Implies the books is extremely scarce, perhaps only turning up once every ten years or so.
Reading CopyA copy of a book that is worn or used to such a degree that it is not in good enough condition to be considered collectible.
Re-backedA book that has been repaired by replacing the spine and mending the hinges.
Re-casedA book that has been glued back into its covers after having been shaken loose.
RectoThe front side of a leaf in a bound book; in other words, the right-hand page of an opened book. Also called the Obverse.
RejointedMeans the book has been repaired preserving the original covers, including the spine.
RemainderWhen a book has ceased to sell, a publisher may get rid of his overstock by "remaindering" the title.
Remainder MarksThe publisher will mark the bottom edges of books sold as remainders with a stamp, a black marker, or spray paint, which speckles the bottom.
ReverseThe rear side of a leaf in a bound book; in other words, the left-hand page of an opened book. Also called the Verso.
Self-WrapsWrappers which have vestigial flaps that imitate a dust jacket.
SeriesA group of volumes with a common theme issued in succession by a single publisher.
Sextodecimo (16mo)A small book, approximately four inches wide and six inches tall. To make it, each sheet of paper is folded four times, forming sixteen leaves (32 pages).
ShakenAn adjective describing a book whose pages are beginning to come loose from the binding.
Shelf WearThe wear that occurs as a book is placed onto and removed from a shelf. It may be to the tail (bottom) edge of the covers as they rub against the shelf, to the dust jacket or exterior of the covers (when no dust jacket is present) as the book rubs against its neighbours, or to the head of the spine which some use to pull the book from the shelf.
SheetThe piece of paper on which the printer prints. The sheet is folded one or more times to form the leaves of the book.
SignedA book which the author has autographed. See Inscribed.
SignatureIn bookmaking, this does not mean the author's name written out in his hand. It refers rather to the group of pages produced by folding a single printed sheet, ready for sewing or gluing into a book.
SlipcaseA cardboard case covered in paper, cloth or leather which holds a book with only the spine exposed.
SpineThe book's backbone, where the signatures are gathered. The spine is covered with the backstrip.
StateClosely allied to the definition of Issue. State generally refers to a change other than a correction of a misprint.
StubA narrow strip of paper usually remaining where a leaf has been cut away.
SunnedFaded from exposure to light or direct sunlight.
TailThe lower margin of a leaf, cover or endpaper. Sometimes referred to as the bottom.
TailpieceDecorative typography ornament on the lower part of a page at the end of a chapter or a poem.
ThousandsSome publishers in the nineteenth century added a notice on the title page stating, for instance "Eighth Thousand" to indicate a later printing. These are not first editions.
Three-deckerA book in three volumes, almost exclusively used to describe Victorian novels of the late nineteenth century.
TightThe binding of a new book is very tight; that is, the book will not open easily and generally does not want to remain open to any given page. As the book is used, the binding becomes looser until a well-used book may lay flat and remain open to any page in the book.
TissueA thin, protective sheet laid over an illustration.
Tipped-inMeans the plate, autograph, letter, photo, etc., is actually attached to the book.
TirageFrench for "a printing." Usually used for a limited edition, often numbered and dated.
Title PageThe title page, near the beginning of the book, lists the title and subtitle of the book, the authors, editors, and/or contributors, the publisher or printer, and sometimes the place and date of publication. The title page information should be used for cataloguing (not the half-title page or covers).
Title Page IndexUsed in describing periodicals to indicate that the title page and index are present; without a title page and index, the volume is incomplete.
ToolingThe decoration of a binding.
Top Edge GiltUsually abbreviated teg, it means that the top edges of the pages have been covered with gold leaf or gilt material.
Trade EditionThe regularly published edition. This term is used to differentiate it from a limited signed edition of the same book.
Trade PaperbackA softcover book which is generally large in size and made of better quality materials than a Mass-Market Paperback.
TrimmedAn adjective indicating that the pages have been cut down to a size smaller than when originally issued.
Typed Letter SignedA typewritten letter signed by hand.
UncutThe pages of the completed book have not been shaved down to a uniform surface.
UnderliningUsing a pencil or pen to underline passages in a book to draw attention to the underlined text. See also Highlighting and Marginalia.
UnopenedThe leaves of the book are still joined at the folds, not slit apart.
UnpaginatedThe pages are not numbered (although each signature may be designated by letter).
UnsophisticatedPure, genuine, unrestored.If a book is so described, it can mean trouble as far as condition is concerned.
VariantA book that differs in one or more features from others of the same impression, but a positive sequence has not been established.
VellumA thin sheet of specially prepared skin of calf, lamb, or kid used for writing or printing, or for the cover.
VersoThe second, or rear, side of a leaf in a book; in other words, the left-hand page of an opened book. Also called the Reverse.
WaterstainStain on a book cover or leaves from water or other liquids. May cause discoloration and perhaps actual shrinking.
Worming, WormholesSmall holes resulting from bookworms (the larvae of various beetles.)
Wrap-around BandThe band of printed paper the length of the dust wrapper of a book. Wrap-around bands contain favorable reviews and are put around some copies of books. Obviously fragile, they are of interest to collectors.
WrappersThe outer covers of a paperbound book or pamphlet. Not to be confused with Dust Wrapper.
YappedRefers to the edges of the cover of a book bound in paper or another soft material. These yapped edges are not flush with the pages but extend beyond the edges of the book and are fragile by nature.